Maria Montessori was born in Italy in 1870. She graduated from medical school in 1896 and became the first medical doctor in Italy. She is an educational philosopher who is also known for her writing on scientific pedagogy.
Maria Montessori paid special attention to human suffering especially to mentally challenged children and thought they deserved a proper education which could potentially help them overcome their illness.
She studied under Jean Itard and Eduard Sequin, who had worked with the children with special needs. Dr. Montessori taught reading and writing to those children. Some of these children were successful and some even had better results than normal children in traditional schools.
Through scientific observation, Maria Montessori realized the importance of the environment and she believed that children need a prepared environment, in which they learn by doing. She believed that the children need to use materials that provide purposeful constructive activities. Dr. Montessori realized that children were not interested in provided toys, but they work well when they chose work for themselves. She also discovered that children have the capacity to find what they need. Adults must trust children and provide an environment for their activities.
Practical Life exercises are about doing living activities in a purposeful way. These activities are essential, simple, and ordinary tasks that we do as adults to prepare, maintain, restore, and beautify our environments such as washing, sweeping, cooking, etc. Practical Life is also basic activities that the child can find at home.
Practical Life Exercise include grace and courtesy which underlies all of Montessori pedagogy. It includes interaction with the environment, respect and delight for each others’ existence in the classroom, and responsibility and consequences.
Preliminary Movements, Care of Environment, Care of Self, Control of Movement.
Exercises such as holding, carrying, rolling a mat, folding napkins, dusting, washing, polishing, arranging flowers, sweeping, greeting, offering, apologizing, etc.
· Help the child gain control in the coordination of his movement.
· Help the child to gain independence.
· Help the child to adapt to society.
· Help the child to become fully functional in a society.
· Development of the will.
· Development of the physical, mental, and emotional aspects of the child.
· Purposeful movement.
· Build concentration.
· Orderly work habits.
· Logical thought.
· Build sense of responsibility.
· Establish sense of reality.
· Emotional stability.Say something interesting about your business here.
Sensorial activity starts from birth. We immediately start with smell, touch and taste. Sight and hearing are the tools for intellectual life. Sensorial experiences play a great role in intellectual formation and orientation.
Aristotle said, “The senses are the gateways to intelligence. There is nothing in the intelligence that did not first pass through the senses.”
Sensorial activities include pairing, matching, grading, naming lessons, memory exercises and games, discoveries and variations, and application.
Ten Senses are developed through the Sensorial activities:
· Visual Sense
· Auditory sense
· Olfactory sense (Smell)
· Gustatory sense (Taste)
· Tactile sense (Touch)
· Kinesthetic sense (Muscular sense)
· Stereognostic sense (Muscles, Skin)
· Thermic sense (Temperature)
· Baric sense (Weight)
· Pain sense
· Builds foundation of consciousness, intelligence, and exploration of the environment.
· Creates basis for order in the mind which lead to clarity of vision.
· Child’s motor coordination gets more refined, both small and large muscular movements.
· The senses become refined and sharpened therefore, the children gather more reliable information to serve intelligence.
· The refined senses help the child to discover the beauty of things and an aesthetic sense for artistic creativity.
· Sensorial materials prepare the children for intellectual activities that follow with language, mathematics, and cultural subjects.
· Sensorial materials help the child detect abnormalities early on so they can be remedied.
Language development is an essential part of development of a child. It is the context of culture and intelligence. It is our job to help children become an efficient communicator.
Four areas of language development:
1. Spoken Language – gain confidence, form ideas, enrich vocabulary and language training
2. Written language – preparation of the hand, and of the mind.
3. Vocabulary Enrichment
4. Reading Language
Additional Areas of Language Development:
· Be able to identify the symbols.
· Attach the sound to the symbols.
· Fuse the sounds together.
· Attach meaning to the words.
· Put the meaning into context with the other words.
· Montessori language program is rich in its content. It is a step by step development of a child inter-relating skills from practical and sensorial exercises.
· Child will be able express him/herself in a polite and courteous manner.
· Child will be able to write and read with ease.
Child will be able to speak with intelligence and clear contents of information
Mathematical mind, a term borrowed from French philosopher Pascal, it is a natural human tendency to think in mathematical terms: to count, measure, and recognize shapes and symmetry.
5 Different groups for abstract calculations :
· Concepts of numbers 1-10, quantity and their names, symbols as abstract representations, associating the quantity and the symbols, sequence of numbers.
· Decimal System Material : We introduce the units of 10, 100, 1000 to children. The child sees these numbers in a geometric form.
· Operations - Addition, Subtraction, Multiplication & division
· Linear counting – Activities with tens and teens boards.
· The role of mathematics in education is to help in ordering the child’s mind. It prepares a rigorous discipline and helps the child reach abstraction.
· We help children by analyzing the difficulties and presenting scientifically prepared material to deal with large numbers because tens, hundreds, and thousands are presented as a single object.
· The mathematical material is like a mental gymnasium on which the child’s mathematical mind can exercise itself. Children will build a strong foundation in mathematical skills.
Geography, Botany, Science, Astronomy, History, Music, Art
In Montessori environment, Cultural activities help the child to become conscious of the world around him.
Our world contains language and mathematics and the world of flowers, plants, animals, music, geography, history, music and art.
Children will learn about land formations, globe, continents and flags.
Children will learn about different parts of the flowers and animals.
They will learn about history, music, and art.
Our goal is to help the child to develop his own personality, adapt to his particular time and place with a view toward being a functioning, independent, and cooperative member of society.
In the Lower Elementary classroom, children are expected to be able to accept direction, attentive to small and large group presentations and discussions. Smooth transition of the Lower Elementary class will be guided by our caring teachers.
Each child is provided with a weekly or bi-monthly workplan by the teacher. This plan provides a direction for the child and allows the teacher to guide him in the concepts he needs to review or learn. The workplan may be modified as needed according to the child’s progress and needs. Children develop enthusiasm and zeal, motivation for learning given the freedom of limits in Montessori classroom.
Lower Elementary language studies include listening and speaking, reading, spelling, and writing skills.
Lower Elementary Mathematics include numeration, operations, measurement, money, time, geometry.
· TIME- Be able to tell time
Lower Elementary science include, zoology, botany, earth science, chemistry, physics. In this class, students will learn scientific process and principles of observation, experimentation, research and presentation.
Lower Elementary Geography includes topics of physical geography, political geography, study of globe, flags, landforms.
History studies includes concept of time, the concept of history, fundamental needs of mankind and the history of life. Learning timelines, concept of BC and AD, personal timelines, measure of time such as reading calendars, days of the week; months of the year and year, and its parts and classification of past, present, future. Children will also learn about fundamental needs of mankind, physical, emotional and spiritual needs such as studies on culture, religion,
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