Maria Montessori was born in Italy in 1870. She graduated from medical school in 1896 and became the first medical doctor in Italy. She is an educational philosopher who is also known for her writing on scientific pedagogy.
Maria Montessori paid special attention to human suffering especially to mentally challenged children and thought they deserved a proper education which could potentially help them overcome their illness.
She studied under Jean Itard and Eduard Sequin, who had worked with the children with special needs. Dr. Montessori taught reading and writing to those children. Some of these children were successful and some even had better results than normal children in traditional schools.
Through scientific observation, Maria Montessori realized the importance of the environment and she believed that children need a prepared environment, in which they learn by doing. She believed that the children need to use materials that provide purposeful constructive activities. Dr. Montessori realized that children were not interested in provided toys, but they work well when they chose work for themselves. She also discovered that children have the capacity to find what they need. Adults must trust children and provide an environment for their activities.
Practical Life exercises are about doing living activities in a purposeful way. These activities are essential, simple, and ordinary tasks that we do as adults to prepare, maintain, restore, and beautify our environments such as washing, sweeping, cooking, etc. Practical Life is also basic activities that the child can find at home.
Practical Life Exercise include grace and courtesy which underlies all of Montessori pedagogy. It includes interaction with the environment, respect and delight for each others’ existence in the classroom, and responsibility and consequences.
Preliminary Movements, Care of Environment, Care of Self, Control of Movement.
Exercises such as holding, carrying, rolling a mat, folding napkins, dusting, washing, polishing, arranging flowers, sweeping, greeting, offering, apologizing, etc.
Sensorial activity starts from birth. We immediately start with smell, touch and taste. Sight and hearing are the tools for intellectual life. Sensorial experiences play a great role in intellectual formation and orientation.
Aristotle said, “The senses are the gateways to intelligence. There is nothing in the intelligence that did not first pass through the senses.”
Sensorial activities include pairing, matching, grading, naming lessons, memory exercises and games, discoveries and variations, and application.
Ten Senses are developed through the Sensorial activities:
Mathematical mind, a term borrowed from French philosopher Pascal, it is a natural human tendency to think in mathematical terms: to count, measure, and recognize shapes and symmetry.
5 Different groups for abstract calculations :
Language development is an essential part of development of a child. It is the context of culture and intelligence. It is our job to help children become an efficient communicator.
Four areas of language development:
Additional Areas of Language Development:
Geography, Botany, Science, Astronomy, History, Music, Art
In Montessori environment, Cultural activities help the child to become conscious of the world around him.
Our world contains language and mathematics and the world of flowers, plants, animals, music, geography, history, music and art.
Children will learn about land formations, globe, continents and flags.
Children will learn about different parts of the flowers and animals.
They will learn about history, music, and art.
Our goal is to help the child to develop his own personality, adapt to his particular time and place with a view toward being a functioning, independent, and cooperative member of society.
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